||Climate change poses a major challenge for farmers, but agricultural sustainability, mitigation, and adaptation can effectively decrease climate impacts on agricultural systems. Changes in farming practices are necessary to reduce emissions and to adapt to climate change. However, such modifications to common practices depend, to a large extent, on farmers’ knowledge and attitudes towards climate risks. An empirical study of farmers’ attitudes and knowledge of climate change mitigation and adaptation practices is useful to understand how farmers’ knowledge influences their attitudes and practices towards climate change mitigation and adaptation. Based on a case study characterised by four agricultural farming systems (extensive dairy sheep, intensive dairy cattle, horticultural farming, and rice farming) in the Province of Oristano in Italy, this study contains an investigation of (i) farmers’ knowledge of climate change causes and effects, how they construct such knowledge, and how they adapt to the phenomenon; (ii) what and how are farmers’ attitudes towards climate change causes are shaped under their contextual social interests and values; and (iii) if their practices in responding to climate variability are influenced by their constructed knowledge. The research results showed that farmers’ declarative knowledge of climate change did not affect their adaptation practices but directed farmers’ attitudes towards climate change causes. The findings also underscore the necessity of facilitating social learning spaces for enhancing virtuous behaviours towards climate change mitigation and the sharing and co-production of procedural knowledge for developing shared sustainable climate adaptation practices at the farm level.