||The effects of short-and long-term salinisation were studied by comparing tomato growth on a soil exposed to one-season salinisation (short term) vs growth on a soil exposed to >20 years salinisation (long term). Remarkable differences were associated to substantial modifications of the soil physical-chemical characteristics in the root zone, including deteriorated structure, reduced infiltration properties and increased pH. Fresh yield, fruit number and fruit weight were similarly affected by short-and long-term salinisation. In contrast, the marketable yield was significantly lower in the long-term salinised soil-a response that was also associated to nutritional imbalance (mainly referred to P and K). As reported for plants growing under oxygen deprivation stress, the antioxidant capacity of the water soluble fraction of salinised tomato fruits was enhanced by short-term salinisation, also. Overall, long-term salinisation may cause physiological imbalances and yield reductions that cannot be solely attributed to hyperosmotic stress and ionic toxicity. Therefore, the ability of plants to cope with nutritional deficiency and withstand high pH and anoxia may be important traits that should be considered to improve plant tolerance to long-term salinised soils.